9.2 Scientific Research on Contraception: The “Zoological” Ethos

Summary: Chapter IX.2 Scientific Research On Contraception: Zoological Ethos   Modern contraceptive research was conceived from the beginning as female contraception. Male contraception, although in recent years it has received considerable attention, has remained secondary. A consequence of such an approach was the development, among researchers of female contraception, of a mentality that could be …

9.2 Scientific Research on Contraception: The “Zoological” EthosRead More »

9.1 Scientific Research on Contraception: The “Abuse of Power” Ethos

Summary: Chapter IX.1 Scientific Research On Contraception: The “Abuse-of-Power” Ethos   This chapter aims to review some ethical aspects of clinical trials conducted by researchers who developed hormonal contraception. When reviewing the clinical studies on contraception in women, one detects in many of them the commission of irregularities of method and ethics of varied nature …

9.1 Scientific Research on Contraception: The “Abuse of Power” EthosRead More »

8.2 Protagonists in the Shadows: Thomas Hayes and Alan S. Parkes

Summary: Chapter VIII (II) Protagonists in the shadows (II): Thomas Hayes and Alan S. Parkes   I. Hayes and the “reproductive act” Thomas Hayes introduced the novel concept of the “reproductive act,” opposing it to the singular sexual act. The author intended in this way to discredit the moral doctrine about sexuality based on natural law …

8.2 Protagonists in the Shadows: Thomas Hayes and Alan S. ParkesRead More »

8.1 Protagonists in the Shadows: Edward C. Hughes

Summary: Chapter VIII (I) Protagonists in the shade (I): Edward C. Hughes y Raymond Holden I. Edward C. Hughes and obstetric-gynecological terminology Edward C. Hughes was one of the creators in 1951 of the American Academy of Obstetrics and Gynecology, which soon after was renamed the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). He chaired …

8.1 Protagonists in the Shadows: Edward C. HughesRead More »

7. The Medico-Biological Aspect of the Papal Commission for the Study of the Problems of the Family, Population, and Birth Rate

Summary: Chapter VII The Medico-Biological Aspect of the Papal Commission for the Study of the Problems of the Family, Population, and Birth Rate   Nobody who has taken an interest in the ethical aspects of contraception can ignore the important role they played in the deliberations of the Papal Commission for the Study of the …

7. The Medico-Biological Aspect of the Papal Commission for the Study of the Problems of the Family, Population, and Birth RateRead More »

6. Changing words to change minds

Summary: Chapter 6 Changing words to change minds I. Introduction In the minds of its pioneers and in the opinion of the general public, contraception was, by definition, understood to mean the prevention of conception, understood as the prevention of fertilization. In fact, this understanding endured through the middle of the twentieth century. In the …

6. Changing words to change mindsRead More »

5. Jurists approve abortive contraception

Summary: Chapter V Jurists approve abortive contraception   I. The Model Penal Code of the American Institute of Law (ALI) The American Law Institute (ALI) is a private entity, founded in 1923 by lawyers, judges, and academics to study, clarify, and modernize American law at all levels. One of ALI’s most important project was the …

5. Jurists approve abortive contraceptionRead More »

4. Catholic doctors and the AMA resolutions on contraception 

Summary: Chapter 4 Catholic Doctors and the Resolutions of the AMA on Contraception In this chapter we will study the relationship that the Catholic doctors of the United States maintained with the Report that the Committee for the Study of Contraceptive Practices issued in 1937, and the causes that originated the institutional Resolution that approved those practices.

3. The medical profession and contraception: from contempt to acceptance

Summary: Chapter 3 The Medical Profession Before Contraception: From Rejection To Acceptance I. Introduction: Institutional Contempt For Contraception In general, and until well into the twentieth century, institutional medicine adopted a negative attitude towards contraception. In contrast to their rejection by most doctors, the use of contraceptive methods spread among the general public, especially the well-off. The expansion of contraception use prompted the lucrative production and trade of contraceptive agents (some ineffective and potentially harmful).

2. Early contraception and its rejection of abortion

Summary: Chapter 2 The first contraception and its incompatibility with abortion In this chapter we will show how, in the mind of the creators of contraception, not only is it something distinct from abortion, but it is, by definition, incompatible with it. The theme is of great interest and relevance. The dominant idea in bioethics and medicine is, and has been for some decades, that there is an uninterrupted continuity between contraception and abortion.